CBT Counseling & Therapy Divorce and Separation EMDR Inner Child Work Linda C J Turner

Brain Development

Much of this experience-dependent control of brain development relies upon the experiences either increasing or decreasing the neural activity of a cell. For example, unused neurons (neurons with little neural activity) will die, while used neurons will survive. This is a normal process that occurs in the developing brain—too many cells are born and are then pruned. While new neurons are born in the brain throughout life, the enormity of early life growth is never replicated in later life. The implications of this process for custodial decisions in very early life are enormous—early life deprivation fails to activate neurons, which means that a greater number of neurons will die. Equally important, neurons that would typically die under “normal” conditions could be retained under deprivation or conditions of abuse. In either situation, brain function for the typical social environment in our Western culture might be compromised. For example, Romanian orphans reared in extreme physical and social isolation have smaller brains, and adopted orphans from Romania and China have a larger amygdala than their non-adopted counterparts.5 The amygdala is a brain area concerned with emotion and fear, and a larger amygdala would suggest altered emotion and fear processing.

Next, more refined control of brain development is accomplished by changing the activity of specific connections between neurons. Activity patterns between neurons can cause some neurons to grow more dendritic branches and synapses but prune others, and so particular types of information processing are enhanced. Importantly, a specific level of neural activity is needed because both too much and too little activity has been shown to be suboptimal. Equally important, the optimal types and intensities of experiences will vary at each stage of development. For example, while rough and tumble play or watching a video might be appropriate sensory stimulation for a four-year-old child, they are likely inappropriate for an infant or a toddler. A more appropriate pattern and intensity of sensory stimulation for a one-year-old would be socially interacting with a nurturing and interesting caregiver. The implications of experience instructing fine-tuning of brain development are critical for custodial issues. If early life experience does not activate the attachment system, it is likely that the development of future attachment formation will be compromised. This seems to have occurred in some orphans adopted from China and Romania. Or, if early life attachment coexists with fear, then the activity of these systems could be overly coordinated.6 Of course, exploring these issues in the human brain is extremely difficult, but animal research in both rodents and primates certainly supports this view, as discussed below.

Importantly, we also know that no brain area functions in isolation and that brain changes induced by early life experiences are ubiquitous throughout the brain. Thus, information about brain development for a given brain area needs to be interpreted within the context of other neural changes because brain activity is a coordinated process of functional connectivity between areas. Moreover, the contribution of learning and interventions, which can dramatically alter brain activity, needs to be considered as we relate neuroscience to behavior and policy.7

#mindfulness CBT Counseling & Therapy Divorce and Separation EMDR Feeling Alive Inner Child Work

Look to the future

#mindfulness CBT Counseling & Therapy Divorce and Separation EMDR Feeling Alive

Look after yourself

#mindfulness CBT Counseling & Therapy Divorce and Separation EMDR Uncategorized

Karma, Consciousness, and Freedom

CBT Counseling & Therapy Divorce and Separation EMDR Linda C J Turner NLP Recovery

Common Reaction of the brain to an abuser

Several important ingredients that contribute to someone’s “addiction” to their abuser are oxytocin (bonding), endogenous opioids (pleasure, pain, withdrawal, dependence), corticotropin-releasing factor (withdrawal, stress), and dopamine (craving, seeking, wanting). With such strong neurochemistry in dysregulated states, it will be extremely difficult to manage emotions or make logical decisions.

CBT Counseling & Therapy Linda C J Turner

CBT Therapy

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psychosocial intervention approach in which behavioral change is initiated by a therapist helping patients to confront and modify the irrational thoughts and beliefs that are most likely at the root of their maladaptive behaviors. Maladaptive behaviors are those that prevent an individual from adjusting appropriately to normal situations, and which are considered counterproductive or not socially acceptable (Figure 21-1).1 The primary goal of CBT is to identify these maladaptive behaviors, recognize beliefs associated with those behaviors, correct any inappropriate beliefs, and replace those beliefs with more appropriate ones that will result in greater coping skills and adaptive behaviors (Figure 21-2).

There are several approaches to CBT and various ways of incorporating CBT into the management of chronic low back pain (CLBP). CBT alone does not address all of the contributing factors to CLBP (e.g., anatomic, biologic, physiologic), and it is not intended to replace interventions aimed at correcting those factors when appropriate. The focus of CBT in the context of CLBP is mainly to address psychological comorbidities that may impede recovery. If those factors are solely responsible for CLBP, then CBT may be appropriate as the main intervention. However, patients sometimes find it difficult to perceive the utility of CBT as the sole treatment for CLBP.2 Use of the term CBT varies widely and may be used to denote self-instructions (e.g., distraction, imagery, motivational self-talk), relaxation, biofeedback, development of adaptive coping strategies (e.g., minimizing negative or self-defeating thoughts), changing maladaptive beliefs about pain, and goal setting (Figure 21-3).3Patients referred for CBT may be exposed to varying selections of these strategies that are specifically tailored to their needs.

CBT Counseling & Therapy

CBT in Later Life

Cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs) and interventions have strong evidence of being effective for behavioral health conditions in diverse middle-aged and older adults. Not all aging individuals require adaptations of standard CBTs, yet some features of later life merit special attention. Culturally responsive CBTs include affirmation of personal strengths, along with consideration of modifications to improve clinical outcomes in later life. Stepped care approaches that utilize task shifting, along with innovative models of service delivery by video, telephone and the internet, can provide flexible methods to expand reach and enhance quality of life for aging populations across the globe.

CBT Counseling & Therapy EMDR Linda C J Turner NLP Recovery

Help with PTSD and C-PTSD

CBT Counseling & Therapy Divorce and Separation EMDR Feeling Alive Uncategorized

EMDR Therapy

CBT Counseling & Therapy Divorce and Separation Linda C J Turner Uncategorized

Emotional Regulation