Post–traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating mental condition that develops after exposure to extreme stress or a traumatic event. While the majority of people will resolve the short-term distress such an event causes, individuals with PTSD continue to be affected for much longer. Treatments: Cognitive behavioral therapy.
There are several approaches to dealing with narcissism, but therapy typically involves these essential steps:
identifying existing defense mechanisms exploring reasons behind these coping methods learning and practicing new patterns of behavior exploring how behaviors affect others examining connections between their internal voice and their treatment of others
The key to lasting progress often lies in:
helping someone see how positive change can benefit them helping them explore causes of narcissistic defenses without criticism or judgment offering validation encouraging self-forgiveness and self-compassion to manage shame and vulnerability.
Mental toughness is about more than just having resilience and control in difficult situations. It relates to a psychological frame of mind that endorses confidence and commitment to success. In his book Developing Mental Toughness, the psychologist Peter Clough describes mental toughness as a combination of the following:
The amount of control a person believes they have over their life and emotions;
How much commitment is placed upon achieving goals despite hardship;
Being able to see potential threats as opportunities for self-development;
Continuing to strive in changing environments;
The level of confidence a person has in succeeding despite setbacks.
Self-efficacy is, according to psychologist Albert Bandura who originally proposed the concept, a personal judgment of how well or poorly a person is able to cope with a given situation based on the skills they have and the circumstances they face.
Self-efficacy affects every area of human endeavor. By determining the beliefs a person holds regarding their power to affect situations, Self-Efficacy strongly influences both the power a person actually has to face challenges competently and the choices a person is most likely to make. These effects are particularly apparent, and compelling, with regard to investment behaviors such as in health,education, and agriculture.
A strong sense of self efficacy promotes human accomplishment and personal well-being. A person with high self-efficacy views challenges as things that are supposed to be mastered rather than threats to avoid. These people are able to recover from failure faster and are more likely to attribute failure to a lack of effort. They approach threatening situations with the belief that they can control them. These things have been linked to lower levels of stress and a lower vulnerability to depression. 
In contrast, people with a low sense of self-efficacy view difficult tasks as personal threats and shy away from them. Difficult tasks lead them to look at the skills they lack rather than the ones they have. It is easy for them to lose faith in their own abilities after a failure. Low self-efficacy can be linked to higher levels of stress and depression. 
The overall effect of trauma can be described as “loss of sense of aliveness, motivation, excitement, and purpose.”
In brain scans of 18 chronic PTSD patients (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder), the researchers discovered something startling: there was almost no activation of the “self-perceiving” areas of the brain compared to non-traumatized subjects: the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, parietal cortex, and insula were dark.
Their conclusion was that “in response to their trauma and in coping with the terror that lingered long afterward, these patients had learned to shut down the brain areas that mediate the visceral feelings and emotions that accompany and define terror.”
Traumatized people often lose their sense of purpose and direction because they cannot match with themselves what they really want, as defined by the most basic sensations in their bodies, which are the basis for emotions like desire and passion. In some cases, the loss of self-awareness is so profound that sufferers can’t even recognize themselves in the mirror.