How does trauma bonding affect the brain?

One of many ways victims can help their brain break a trauma bond is by facilitating the release of calming oxytocin (from the amygdala). Igniting oxytocin receptors of this type can reduce cravings, ease withdrawal, and lessen pain.

What causes someone to violate a person they claimed to love? There are many reasons, for example, substance or alcohol abuse, a neurological condition impacting behavior, or a disorder of character such as antisocial personalitypsychopathy, borderline personality disorder, or narcissistic personality disorder.

https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/neurosagacity/201701/the-brain-can-work-against-abuse-victims

Common Reaction of the brain to an abuser

Several important ingredients that contribute to someone’s “addiction” to their abuser are oxytocin (bonding), endogenous opioids (pleasure, pain, withdrawal, dependence), corticotropin-releasing factor (withdrawal, stress), and dopamine (craving, seeking, wanting). With such strong neurochemistry in dysregulated states, it will be extremely difficult to manage emotions or make logical decisions.

https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/neurosagacity/201701/the-brain-can-work-against-abuse-victims

Trauma Bond with Abusive Parent

The term ‘trauma bond‘ is also known as Stockholm Syndrome. It describes a deep bond which forms between a victim and their abuser. Victims of abuse often develop a strong sense of loyalty towards their abuser, despite the fact that the bond is damaging to them.

The symptoms of trauma bonding can manifest:

  • Negative feelings for potential rescuers
  • Support of abusers reasons and behaviours
  • Inability to engage in behaviours that will assist release/detachment from abusers

https://paceuk.info/child-sexual-exploitation/what-is-trauma-bonding/

Can a victim of emotional abuse become an abuser?

Abuse victims, like anyone in relationships with high emotional reactivity, build automatic defense systems, which include preemptive strikes — if you expect to be criticized, stonewalled, or demeaned, you may well do it first. Victims can easily develop a reactive narcissism that makes them seem like abusers

Can a victim of emotional abuse become an abuser?

CBT Therapy

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psychosocial intervention approach in which behavioral change is initiated by a therapist helping patients to confront and modify the irrational thoughts and beliefs that are most likely at the root of their maladaptive behaviors. Maladaptive behaviors are those that prevent an individual from adjusting appropriately to normal situations, and which are considered counterproductive or not socially acceptable (Figure 21-1).1 The primary goal of CBT is to identify these maladaptive behaviors, recognize beliefs associated with those behaviors, correct any inappropriate beliefs, and replace those beliefs with more appropriate ones that will result in greater coping skills and adaptive behaviors (Figure 21-2).

There are several approaches to CBT and various ways of incorporating CBT into the management of chronic low back pain (CLBP). CBT alone does not address all of the contributing factors to CLBP (e.g., anatomic, biologic, physiologic), and it is not intended to replace interventions aimed at correcting those factors when appropriate. The focus of CBT in the context of CLBP is mainly to address psychological comorbidities that may impede recovery. If those factors are solely responsible for CLBP, then CBT may be appropriate as the main intervention. However, patients sometimes find it difficult to perceive the utility of CBT as the sole treatment for CLBP.2 Use of the term CBT varies widely and may be used to denote self-instructions (e.g., distraction, imagery, motivational self-talk), relaxation, biofeedback, development of adaptive coping strategies (e.g., minimizing negative or self-defeating thoughts), changing maladaptive beliefs about pain, and goal setting (Figure 21-3).3Patients referred for CBT may be exposed to varying selections of these strategies that are specifically tailored to their needs.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/cognitive-behavioral-therapy

What do clients say about their experiences of EMDR in the research literature?

EMDR is talked about in a transformative manner. There are conditions, which need to be present for EMDR to work, and connections exist between the EMDR method and therapist as agents of change. For practitioners, a pluralistic approach, incorporating the EMDR method could be used to carry out tasks in therapy to achieve therapeutic goals based on the client’s requirements. In research, the paucity of qualitative studies could be addressed by engaging counselling psychologists, as scientific enquirers and artistic therapists, to expand research into clients’ experiences of EMDR to improve therapeutic practice and treatment programmes. Areas suggested for further qualitative experiential research include adverse effects, tolerability and withdrawal from therapy; EMDR for specific populations, such as combat veterans where the quantitative evidence is equivocal; and EMDR therapy practised in inpatient settings.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S246874991830036X