Child abuse EMOTIONAL ABUSE Linda C J Turner Linda C J Turner - Trauma Therapist Q & A with #LindaCJTurner

Examples of “pernicious abuse”

While “pernicious abuse” may not have a widely recognized definition, there are various forms of abuse that can be considered highly detrimental and harmful. Here are some examples of abusive behaviors that are generally considered damaging:

  1. Emotional Manipulation: This involves tactics such as gaslighting, where the abuser manipulates the victim’s perception of reality, leading them to doubt their own thoughts, feelings, and experiences.
  2. Financial Exploitation: This occurs when someone misuses or controls another person’s financial resources without their consent. It can involve stealing money, coercing someone into giving up their assets, or exerting control over their financial decisions.
  3. Psychological or Emotional Abuse: This form of abuse aims to degrade, humiliate, or belittle the victim emotionally. It may involve constant criticism, humiliation, intimidation, or isolating the victim from their support systems.
  4. Sexual Abuse: This refers to any non-consensual sexual activity or coercion, including rape, molestation, sexual assault, or harassment. Sexual abuse can cause severe emotional and physical trauma.
  5. Domestic Violence: This encompasses a range of abusive behaviors within intimate relationships, including physical violence, threats, stalking, and controlling behavior.
  6. Elder Abuse: This involves mistreatment or neglect of older adults, including physical, emotional, or financial abuse. It can occur in nursing homes, by caregivers, or within family settings.
  7. Child Abuse: Child abuse includes physical, sexual, emotional, or neglectful actions or omissions that harm a child’s well-being or development. It can be perpetrated by parents, caregivers, or other individuals responsible for the child’s care.
  8. Cyberbullying: This form of abuse occurs online through the use of digital communication tools. It involves persistent harassment, intimidation, or spreading harmful content about an individual.

These examples highlight different forms of abuse that can be highly damaging to individuals’ well-being, but it’s important to remember that each situation can be unique, and the impact of abuse can vary. If you or someone you know is experiencing abuse, it’s essential to seek help and support from relevant authorities or organizations that specialize in dealing with such situations.

 © Linda C J Turner

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Q & A – Functional Neurocognitive Imaging (fNCI)

Functional Neurocognitive Imaging (fNCI) refers to the use of neuroimaging techniques to study and understand the functional aspects of the brain related to cognitive processes. It involves measuring brain activity while individuals perform various cognitive tasks or engage in specific mental activities.

fNCI techniques primarily focus on mapping the brain’s activity patterns and changes in blood flow or metabolic activity associated with cognitive processes. These techniques provide insights into how different brain regions work together and communicate during tasks such as perception, attention, memory, decision-making, language processing, and emotional processing.

There are several commonly used neuroimaging techniques in fNCI, including:

  1. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI): This method uses powerful magnets and radio waves to measure changes in blood oxygenation levels in different brain regions. It detects the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal, which indirectly reflects neural activity.
  2. Positron Emission Tomography (PET): PET involves injecting a small amount of a radioactive tracer into the bloodstream. The tracer emits positrons, which are detected by a scanner, providing information about regional cerebral blood flow or glucose metabolism associated with cognitive functions.
  3. Electroencephalography (EEG): EEG measures the electrical activity generated by neurons using electrodes placed on the scalp. It provides high temporal resolution but relatively lower spatial resolution. Event-related potentials (ERPs) derived from EEG are often analyzed to study specific cognitive processes.
  4. Magnetoencephalography (MEG): MEG measures the magnetic fields generated by electrical currents in the brain. Similar to EEG, it provides excellent temporal resolution and is used to study the timing of neural activity.
  5. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS): NIRS measures changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin concentrations in the brain using near-infrared light. It is portable and offers good temporal resolution, making it suitable for studying cognitive processes in naturalistic environments.

These techniques allow researchers to investigate how different brain regions are involved in specific cognitive tasks, how they interact, and how these patterns may differ between individuals or populations. fNCI research has contributed significantly to our understanding of cognitive processes and has implications for fields such as psychology, neuroscience, medicine, and cognitive rehabilitation.

 © Linda C J Turner

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Surprising links between human cognition and personality

“Knowing how personality and intelligence are related allows us to ponder the much deeper question of why,” said Deniz Ones, a co-author of the study and a professor of psychology in the College of Liberal Arts. “These findings revolutionize our understanding of human diversity and individuality. Only by knowing ourselves can we fully tap into our potential.”

Key findings include:

  • Individuals who are active and energetic tend to have a better command of various cognitive abilities. Most notably, this includes extensive knowledge, efficient memory retrieval and enhanced information processing. Regardless of the subject, active folks tend to know more about it. 
  • People who tend to experience high levels of depression or anxiety may find it more difficult to accumulate knowledge or reason logically.
  • Those who were more industrious and compassionate tended to have better verbal and quantitative knowledge skills. This discovery suggests an exciting connection between personality traits and how we learn.
  • There are robust, positive relationships between many cognitive abilities and open mindedness (i.e., receptivity to fresh ideas).
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National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS)

National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS)

The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) is a survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States. The survey aims to assess the prevalence, nature, and consequences of intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and stalking.

NISVS collects data on various forms of violence experienced by adults, including emotional abuse. The survey asks questions about a range of behaviors that constitute emotional abuse, such as psychological aggression, coercive control, and threatening behaviors. Some specific questions may inquire about verbal insults, humiliation, isolation from friends and family, control of finances, and other emotionally manipulative actions.

The survey methodology involves conducting interviews with a large sample of adults, both men and women, to gather self-reported data on their experiences with intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and stalking. NISVS provides estimates of the prevalence of emotional abuse, along with other forms of violence, within intimate relationships.

The findings from NISVS help to understand the extent of emotional abuse in the United States, identify risk factors, inform policy and prevention efforts, and guide interventions for survivors. The survey has been conducted periodically to track trends over time and provide updated information on the prevalence and impact of intimate partner violence and related behaviors.

It’s worth noting that the NISVS focuses specifically on the United States, and its findings may not be directly applicable to other countries. However, the survey serves as an important resource for understanding the dynamics of intimate partner violence, including emotional abuse, within the U.S. context.

 © Linda C J Turner

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The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study

The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study is a landmark research conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Kaiser Permanente in the 1990s. The study aimed to investigate the long-term effects of childhood adversity on health and well-being.

The ACE Study involved over 17,000 participants who were surveyed about their childhood experiences, including exposure to various forms of abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction. The study examined ten specific categories of adverse childhood experiences:

  1. Physical abuse: Experiencing physical harm or injury inflicted by a parent or caregiver.
  2. Sexual abuse: Experiencing sexual contact or acts without consent or understanding.
  3. Emotional abuse: Sustained patterns of emotional mistreatment, such as constant criticism, humiliation, or rejection.
  4. Physical neglect: Failure to provide basic physical necessities, such as food, shelter, or supervision.
  5. Emotional neglect: Chronic inattention to a child’s emotional needs, including love, support, and affection.
  6. Witnessing domestic violence: Observing violence or aggression between caregivers or within the household.
  7. Household substance abuse: Living with individuals who abuse alcohol, drugs, or other substances.
  8. Household mental illness: Having a caregiver who experiences mental health issues.
  9. Parental separation or divorce: Parents separating or divorcing during childhood.
  10. Incarcerated household member: Living with a family member who has been incarcerated.

The study found significant associations between adverse childhood experiences and a wide range of negative health outcomes later in life. It showed that individuals who experienced higher numbers of ACEs were more likely to face health and social problems, including chronic diseases, mental health disorders, substance abuse, risky behaviors, and reduced life expectancy.

The ACE Study brought attention to the lifelong impact of childhood adversity on overall health and well-being. It highlighted the importance of early intervention, prevention, and trauma-informed approaches in addressing the consequences of adverse childhood experiences. The study’s findings have influenced research, policies, and programs aimed at preventing and mitigating the effects of childhood adversity.

 © Linda C J Turner

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Teletherapy or online therapy

Teletherapy or online therapy refers to the practice of providing mental health services and therapy sessions through remote communication technology, such as video conferencing, phone calls, or online messaging platforms. This approach allows individuals to receive therapy from the comfort of their own homes or any location with an internet connection.

Teletherapy has gained popularity in recent years due to its convenience, accessibility, and ability to overcome geographical barriers. It offers several advantages, including:

  1. Accessibility: Teletherapy eliminates the need for in-person visits, making mental health services accessible to individuals who may have difficulty reaching a physical location, such as those in remote areas, individuals with physical disabilities, or those with limited transportation options.
  2. Convenience: Online therapy provides flexibility in scheduling sessions. It allows individuals to fit therapy into their busy schedules, reducing time spent on commuting and waiting rooms.
  3. Privacy and Comfort: Some people feel more comfortable discussing personal and sensitive topics from the privacy of their own homes. Teletherapy allows for a sense of security and confidentiality.
  4. Expanded Choices: Online therapy provides access to a broader range of therapists, as individuals are not limited to practitioners in their immediate vicinity. This expands the options for finding a therapist who is the right fit for their needs.
  5. Reduced Stigma: For individuals who may feel uncomfortable seeking therapy in traditional settings, teletherapy offers a way to receive support while maintaining anonymity and reducing the stigma associated with mental health care.

It is important to note that while teletherapy has many benefits, it may not be suitable for everyone. Certain conditions, such as severe mental illnesses or emergencies requiring immediate attention, may require in-person care. Additionally, reliable internet access and appropriate technology are necessary for successful teletherapy sessions.

Teletherapy has become particularly relevant during the COVID-19 pandemic when social distancing measures and lockdowns limited in-person interactions.

Here at Linda C J Turner you can use Zoom, Whats App, FaceTime, Skype at your convenience in the comfort of your own home.

 © Linda C J Turner

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Q & A – What is Family System Genogram?

A genogram is a visual representation of a family system that provides a comprehensive overview of family relationships, dynamics, and patterns across multiple generations. It is a useful tool in the field of family therapy and can also be utilized in other areas such as genealogy and medical genetics.

Genograms typically use standardized symbols to depict different family members and their connections. These symbols include squares for males, circles for females, and lines to represent various types of relationships (e.g., marriage, divorce, parent-child). Additional symbols and notations can be used to convey important information such as medical conditions, emotional bonds, and patterns of behavior within the family.

By mapping out the family structure and relationships, a genogram helps to identify and visualize various factors that influence family functioning, such as communication styles, conflict patterns, and intergenerational patterns. It provides a way to explore family dynamics, including strengths, vulnerabilities, and areas for potential intervention or support.

Genograms are commonly used in family therapy to facilitate understanding, assessment, and treatment planning. They can reveal recurring patterns, unresolved issues, and relationship dynamics that may contribute to individual and family difficulties. The genogram can serve as a visual aid to explore family history, identify sources of support, and promote insight and dialogue within the therapy process.

It’s worth noting that the genogram is not a standalone tool but is often used in conjunction with other therapeutic techniques and assessments. It helps therapists and individuals gain a deeper understanding of family systems and can inform interventions aimed at improving communication, fostering healthier relationships, and addressing unresolved issues within the family.

© Linda C J Turner

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Interpersonal Acceptance-Rejection Theory (IPARTheory)

Interpersonal Acceptance-Rejection Theory (IPARTheory)

Interpersonal Acceptance-Rejection Theory (IPARTheory) is a psychological framework that focuses on the impact of interpersonal relationships on individuals’ development and well-being. Developed by Ronald P. Rohner, the theory proposes that acceptance and rejection from significant others, such as parents, caregivers, and close peers, play a crucial role in shaping an individual’s psychological and social functioning.

According to IPARTheory, the fundamental human need for acceptance leads individuals to seek social bonds and affiliation with others. When individuals perceive acceptance from important figures in their lives, it promotes feelings of security, self-esteem, and positive emotional well-being. On the other hand, rejection can have detrimental effects on individuals’ psychological and social adjustment.

IPARTheory categorizes rejection into two main types: active and passive rejection. Active rejection refers to overt acts of hostility, neglect, or abuse directed towards an individual. Passive rejection, on the other hand, involves situations where a person is ignored, excluded, or neglected without direct acts of hostility. Both active and passive rejection can have profound negative consequences for an individual’s self-esteem, emotional well-being, and social functioning.

The theory suggests that the experiences of acceptance or rejection from significant others during early childhood have a lasting impact on individuals’ interpersonal relationships and overall psychological development. The quality of these early relationships shapes individuals’ internal working models of themselves and others, influencing their beliefs about trust, security, and the predictability of social interactions throughout their lives.

IPARTheory has been extensively researched and has implications for various areas of psychology, including child development, family dynamics, romantic relationships, and mental health. It highlights the importance of fostering acceptance and providing supportive environments to promote healthy psychological development and well-being in individuals.

© Linda C J Turner

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Remembering the people who have helped you is of great importance for several reasons:

  1. Gratitude and appreciation: Remembering the individuals who have assisted you allows you to express gratitude and appreciation for their support. It acknowledges their efforts and shows that you value their contributions. Expressing gratitude strengthens relationships and fosters a sense of goodwill.
  2. Reciprocity: Recognizing the people who have helped you reminds you of the interconnectedness of relationships. By acknowledging their support, you are more likely to reciprocate when the opportunity arises. Remembering the assistance you received can inspire you to pay it forward and extend help to others in need.
  3. Emotional well-being: Reflecting on the people who have aided you can evoke positive emotions. It serves as a reminder that you are not alone and that there are individuals who care about your well-being. Remembering their kindness can boost your mood, increase feelings of happiness, and foster a sense of belonging.
  4. Building a support network: Recognizing and remembering the people who have helped you builds a strong support network. It creates a circle of individuals who are willing to assist you in times of need. By acknowledging their contributions, you reinforce the bond and trust within these relationships, making them more likely to provide support in the future.
  5. Personal growth and development: Remembering the people who have helped you can serve as a source of inspiration and motivation. Their support may have played a significant role in your personal growth and achievements. Reflecting on their impact can encourage you to strive for greater accomplishments and continue helping others in return.

In summary, remembering the people who have helped you is essential for expressing gratitude, fostering reciprocal relationships, promoting emotional well-being, building a support network, and facilitating personal growth. Taking the time to acknowledge and appreciate their contributions strengthens connections and encourages a positive cycle of support and kindness.

© Linda C J Turner

Linda C J Turner Linda C J Turner - Trauma Therapist Q & A with #LindaCJTurner

When the abuser shows kindness

When an abuser shows kindness, it can create confusion, mixed emotions, and uncertainty in the victim. This behavior is often part of a manipulation tactic known as the “cycle of abuse,” which consists of alternating periods of abusive behavior and moments of kindness or remorse.

It’s important to understand that the abuser’s occasional acts of kindness are not genuine expressions of care or love. They are strategic efforts to maintain control over the victim and keep them trapped in the abusive relationship. These acts can serve several purposes, such as:

  1. Reinforcement: Kindness from the abuser reinforces the belief that the abuser is not entirely bad and that there is hope for change or improvement in the relationship. It can make the victim question their own judgment and create a sense of dependence on the abuser.
  2. Manipulation and guilt: By showing kindness, the abuser may create a sense of indebtedness or guilt in the victim. This can make it harder for the victim to leave the relationship or seek help, as they may feel a sense of obligation to reciprocate the kindness or believe that the abuser can change.
  3. Confusion and control: The intermittent nature of abuse and kindness creates confusion in the victim’s mind. The victim may question whether the abuse is their fault, whether the abuser truly cares for them, or whether they deserve the abuse. This confusion can help the abuser maintain control over the victim and undermine their self-esteem.

It’s important for individuals in abusive relationships to recognize that occasional acts of kindness do not outweigh or justify the abusive behavior. It is part of a manipulative cycle aimed at maintaining power and control. Breaking free from an abusive relationship often requires support from trusted friends, family, or professionals who can provide guidance, resources, and safety planning.

If you or someone you know is experiencing abuse, it is crucial to seek help from local helplines, support organizations, or professionals trained in dealing with domestic violence or abuse. They can provide assistance, guidance, and support in navigating the complexities of leaving an abusive relationship.

© Linda C J Turner